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Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

A principle positing more than one principle or basic substance as the bottom of reality. A doctrine, related to logical positivism, that every one significant statements, with the exception of needed statements of logic and arithmetic, must relate both immediately or indirectly to observable properties of the temporal. — physicalist, n., adj.

philosophy

Islamic thinkers like Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni also developed a scientific method, experimental drugs, a concept of optics, and a legal philosophy. Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history. The Department of Philosophy on the University of Chicago is distinctive in combining a humanistic orientation with a dedication to philosophical rigor...

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