Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

A principle positing more than one principle or basic substance as the bottom of reality. A doctrine, related to logical positivism, that every one significant statements, with the exception of needed statements of logic and arithmetic, must relate both immediately or indirectly to observable properties of the temporal. — physicalist, n., adj.


Islamic thinkers like Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni also developed a scientific method, experimental drugs, a concept of optics, and a legal philosophy. Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history. The Department of Philosophy on the University of Chicago is distinctive in combining a humanistic orientation with a dedication to philosophical rigor. We worth readability of expression and logical precision, and we imagine that philosophical work is enriched when it is animated by a range of conversations within the humanities, social sciences, physical sciences, and arts. We provide exceptionally broad and deep applications in Western philosophy at the undergraduate and graduate levels in a vigorous, congenial, and intellectually stimulating atmosphere. Aztec philosophers developed theories of metaphysics, epistemology, values, and aesthetics.

Introduction To Philosophy: Logic

What underlies the Analytic custom , is the view that philosophical error arises from misunderstandings generated by language. According to analytic philosophers, the true meaning of strange sentences is “concealed by their grammatical type,” and we should translate them into their true kind in order to make clear them. “Continental” philosophy, in the hands of the thinkers such as Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, took a special turn in its preoccupation with consciousness. It is controversial that later modern philosophy ended with contemporary philosophy’s shift of focus from nineteenth century philosophers to twentieth century philosophers. In the final hundred years, philosophy has increasingly become an activity practiced within the modern research college, and accordingly it has grown extra specialized and extra distinct from the pure sciences. Much philosophy in this interval concerns itself with explaining the relation between the theories of the natural sciences and the ideas of the humanities or frequent sense.

Neutra’s finest work combines modernism with indoor-outdoor Southern California living, and that design philosophy is on full display here. In the film, an evangelical student enrolls in a philosophy class led by an atheist professor. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Various fields of the humanities and sciences elevate philosophical questions which are often not given thorough attention in these particular disciplines. Through the informed consideration of such questions, you’ll acquire a broader and deeper understanding of the major areas of mental endeavor. Some of those that examine philosophy turn out to be skilled philosophers, typically by working as professors who train, analysis and write in academic establishments. However, most college students of educational philosophy later contribute to law, journalism, faith, sciences, politics, enterprise, or varied arts. Curtis White has argued that philosophical tools are important to humanities, sciences and social sciences.


Unlike Kant, they believed that the Absolute Reality was knowable and they produced elaborate speculative techniques. More particular tendencies or doctrines, inside a sure space of philosophy, such as deontology in ethics, can be adopted with considerably larger ease and accuracy. Nevertheless, a clear-cut and generally accepted articulation can hardly ever emerge. We are a neighborhood of philosophers with an expansive imaginative and prescient and an outward focus. We aspire to practice “engaged philosophy,” believing that our self-discipline has vital contributions to supply all areas of inquiry.

Philosophy Division Earns High Marks For Addressing Issues Of Underrepresented Groups

Theories and doctrines of Ernst Haeckel, German biologist and thinker, particularly the notion “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny.” — Haeckelian, adj. A concept sustaining that two seemingly conflicting notions are not radically opposed, however are part of a gradually altering continuity. — gradualist, n., adj. — gradualistic, adj. The doctrines of any of varied dualistic sects among the many Jews and the early Christians who claimed possession of superior non secular data, defined the creation of the world in an emanational manner, and condemned matter as evil. The science of causation.